Invasions and Racism in India
Apartheid Varna System
This part gives an in-depth account of the oppression in the apartheid caste system, and the restrictions placed on the subjugated races with full quotations and references to the 'sacred' scriptures that sanction these. The varna caste system is decidedly racial in origin [Greg], whilst the jati profession-based caste system is not.
Apartheid Varna System and Other Caste Systems
The varna system of India during the Brahmanic Ages (1500 BC - 1000 AD) is to be distinguished from caste systems in other parts of the world. The Brahmanic varna system ('varnashramadharma') is basically a genocidal apartheid system designed to exterminate the 'black varna'. Caste systems in other parts of the world (eg. US South, Brazil, Islamic millet systems in the Ottoman Empire and the Delhi Caliphate etc.) were by contrast far milder, permitting the co-existence of different races and discouraging miscegenation without extermination in mind. The word caste is of Portuguese origin, and refers to this co-existence and preservation of different identities for races, not necessarily with a loose hierarchy. It is thus not correct to apply the word 'caste' to the Hindu varna system, since it gives a false impression of a milder institution.
Sudroids Seen as Animals
The Sudroid blacks are repeatedly referred to as 'animals', & never treated as humans in the Hindu scriptures.
" Having killed a cat, an ichneumon, a blue jay, a frog, a dog, an iguana, an owl, or a corw, he shall perform the penance for the murder of a Sudra."
-- [ Manu IX.132 ]
" 'You may breed cows and dogs in your house,' wrote Mr. M.C. Raja. 'You may drink the urine of cows and swallow cowdung to expiate your sins, but you shall not approach an Adi Dravida"
-- [ Inf ]
" The murder of a Sudra by a Brahman is equal only to killing a cat or a frog or a cow "
[ Stat ] [ Wilk.248 ].
Whereas Brahmans are classed with gods, Sudras are classed with animals:
" Elephants, horses, Sudras and contemptiable Mlecchas, lions, tigers, and boars form the middle dark condition"
-- [ Manu i.43 ] [ Muir I.41 ]
The Sudra Black is also not allowed to participate in any rites of the Aryan Vaishnavite religion : " A Brahman should never be the guru of a Sudra. 'While the first part of a Brahman's name should indicate holiness that of a Kshatriya's power and that of a Vashya's wealth, that of a Sudra 's should indicate contempt. The Veda is never to be read in the presence of a Sudra, and for him no sacrifice is to be performed. He has no business with solemn rites." [ Stat ] [ Wilk.247-8 ].
Later, Vaisyas were degraded to the status of Sudras : " Vish [ Vaisya ] is food for the kshatriya" [ Sat.Br.184.108.40.206; Vedic Cosmology, Rajiv Verma, New Age International Ltd. New Delhi, 1996, p.110 ]
To eonforce their domination over the subjugated races, all these and especially the negroid Sudras, were forcibly kept in illiteracy. This maintained the Brahmin state.
Sudra Blacks are not allowed to even read the Vedas, and are punished by having their tongue cut out if they do so. If they hear the Vedas, they are to have molten tin poured into their ears. The Vedas are meant to be read only by Aryans :
" A Sudra has no right even to listen to the Veda. Recitation of or listening to this sacred book is exclusively a privilege of the Aryan Hindus. There is provision of severe punishment for a Sudra, in case he dares to enjoy this privilege. If he "overheard a recitation of the Vedas, molten lac or tin was to be poured into his mouth; if he repeated recitation of the Vedas, his tongue should be cut; and if he remembered Vedic hymns, his body was to be torn into pieces."
-- [ Tirth ]; cited in [ Stat ]
That this rule was actually enforced is proven by the account of Alberuni, who visited India in the 10th century AD :
" The Vaisya and the Sudra are not allowed to hear it [ the Veda ], much less to pronounce and recite it. If such a thing can be proved against one of them, the Brahmans drag him before the magistrate, and he is punished by having his tongue cut off ."
-- [ al-B.i.125 Ch.XII ]
" Every act that is considered the privelege of the Brahman, such as saying prayers, the reciting of the Veda, and offering of sacfirices to the fire, is forbidden to him, to such a degree that when, eg. a Sudra or a Vaisya is proved to have recited the Veda, he is accused by the Brahmans before the ruler, and the latter will order his tongue to be cut off . However, the meditation on God [ is not prohibited ]."
-- [ al-B.ii.127 Ch.LXIV ]
Hence, the caste system did not decrease in severity right from the Aryan invasion in 1500 BC upto the Islamic conquest ca. 1000 AD. That implies a 2500 year period during which the apartheid caste system was in operation - longer than anywhere else in the world.
Some scholars have claimed that the laws of Manu were not necessarily followed in practice. This is merely Brahmanic-Aryan propaganda, since the account of Alberuni quoted above shows that the law was enforced in all its severity. In addition, the accounts of countless Greek and Arab travellers prove that the caste system was enforced during the medieval period, and the account of European travellers, especially English ones, proves that it was in force in South India till the British conquest. Thus, an Aryan Nair would shoot a Dravidian at sight. However, the Islamic invasion relaxed caste systems to a great degree, when the liberal Quranic law substituted the harsh Vedic laws.
For contesting the claims of the pretentious fair-skinned Aryans, the black Sudra is to have his tongue cut off, hot oil poured in his ear, or a nail thrust into his mouth :
· " A once-born man (Sudra) who insults a twice-born man (Aryan) with gross invective, shall have his tongue cut out; for he is of low origin."
-- [ Manu VIII.270 ]
· " If he mentions the names and castes (Jati) of the (twice-born) with contumely, an ."
-- [ Manu VIII.271 ]
· " If he arrogantly teaches Brahmins their duty, the king shall cause . "
-- [ Manu VIII.272 ]
"Rites are declared to be prescribed by the Vedas for the three (highest) castes... Next the Sudras, produced from extinction, are destitute of rites. Hence they are not entitled to be admitted to the purificatory ceremonies, nor does sacred science belong to them. Just as the cloud of smoke which rises from the fire on the friction of the fule, and is dissipated, is of no service in the sacrficial rite, so too the Shudras wandering over the Earth, are altogether (Useless for purpose of sacrifice) , their mode of life devoid of purity and their want of observances prescribed in the Veda."
-- [ Muir I. 153 ] [ Hari.11820 ]
" With whatever limb a man of a low caste does hurt to (a man of the three highest castes) even that limb shall be cut off ; that is the teaching of Manu.
He who raises his hand or a stick, shall have his hand cut off ; he who in his anger kicks with his foot, shall have his foot cut off ."
-- [ Manu VIII.279-280 ]
" If a low-caste man who tries to place himself on the same seat with a man of a high caste, shall be branded on his hip and is banished, or (the king) shall cause his buttock to be gashed."
-- [ Manu VIII.281 ]
" If out of arrogance he [ a Sudra ] spits (on a superior), the king shall cause both his lips to be cut off; if he urines (on him), the penis; if he breaks wind (against him), the anus."
-- [ Manu VIII.282 ]
" If ha lays fold of the hair(of a superior), let the king unhesitatingly cut off his hands , likewise (if he takes him) by the feet, the breard, the neck or the scrotum."
-- [ Manu VIII.282 ]
After Parasurama annihilated the Kshatry race,
" the Brahmans did not sell their sacred lore, nor recite the Vedas in the vicinity of Sudras"
-- [ Muir.I.452 ] [ MBh.Adi.2474 ]
Gandhi's Support of Apartheid
Indeed the practice of untouchability continues today with all its horrors, especially in Aryan Vaishnavite areas [ Pract ]. The great Gandhi, for all the propaganda surrounding his name, did not abolish untouchability. Ambedkar, the 'Father of the Indian Constitution' and greatest leader of the Black Untouchables (Dalits and Adivasis), has written about Gandhi's policy of subjugating the Untouchables,
" Hinduism is a veritable chamber of horrors. The sanctity and infallibility of the Vedas, Smritis and Shastras, the iron law of caste, the heartless law of karma and the senseless law of status by birth are to the Untouchables veritable instruments of torture which Hinduism has forged against untouchables. These very instruments which have mutilated; blasted and blighted the lives of the Untouchables are to be found intact and untarnished in the bosom of Gandhism."
-- [ Ambed ] [ Gandhi_U ] [ Fame ]
Gandhi was a staunch follower of the Brahminist caste system :
" Supporting the caste system he [ Gandhi ] said: "I believe that caste has saved Hinduism from disintegration." He also said, "To destroy the caste system and adopt the Western European social system means that Hindus must give up the principle of hereditary occupation, which is the soul of the caste system. The hereditary principle is an eternal principle. To change it is to create disorder." [ Faz, p.68 ]
-- [ Gandhi_U ]
The greatest crime committed by Gandhi against the Black Race was to deny the Black Untouchables of India separate electorates and sabotaging the plan to emancipiate Untouchables :
" In the Round Table Conference held in 1932, the then British Government accepted the demand of the Dalits for separate electorate. The basis of that demand was the fact that the Dalit are not Hindu but a separate nation. Gandhi started his 'fast unto death' against that plan and sabotaged it. It was a thunderous blow to the cause of the emancipation of the Dalit."
-- [ Gandhi_U ]
Indeed, Gandhi displayed a marked bias against the Black Untouchables :
" In 1933, he established Harijan (Dalit) Sevak Sangh for the welfare of the Untouchables (Dalits). But when there was a demand for the representation of the Untouchables on the Governing Board of the institution, he flatly refused it. He disapproved appointment of Mr. Agnibhaj, a distinguished personality, as a minister in the Congress cabinet in the Madhya Pradesh because he was from the Scheduled Caste."
-- [ Gandhi_U ]
He indeed considered the Negroid Dalit to be of an inferior race. Writing about their supposedly lower level of intelligence, he wrote,
"Majority of Harijans (Dalits) can no more understand the presentation of Christianity than my cows."
-- [ Gandhi_C, p.58 ] [ cited in Gandhi_U ]
thereby comparing the IQ of Dalits to cows !
Gandhi also never supported the Black Africans during his stay in Africa. He only stood for the Aryan 'Hindus'.
" First, he specifically took up the cause of only Indians in South Africa, never the blacks who formed the overwhelming majority. In fact, during the heroic rebellion waged by the Zulus in 1906 (during which the British carried out unparalleled massacres of the Zulus), he offered his services to the British as the leader of a stretcher-bearer company. "
[ FSB.Ch.3 ]
By a supreme fate of irony, it is the Brahmins the Mahatma so supported that eventually killed him !
The Brahman Aryans imposed one of the harshest caste systems of all times [ Brah_S ] [ Caste ]. Regarding the dominion of the Brahman race over all others, Swami Dharma Theertha has written,
"Probably no other class of persons in any society ever combined in themselves all these advantages so exclusively as the Brahmans. It is equally doubtful if any other aristocratic class has ever exercised their privileges to the detriment of the common people so unscrupulously and for so long a period as these Brahman priests." [ Tirth.113 ] He further observes, "No imperial power ever imposed on a weaker people a more ruthless and soul-destroying domination than the Brahmans did on the rest of their fellow citizens, and no race of superior men ever arrogated to themselves such haughty supremacy and false greatness as they have. " [ Tirth.163-4 ]
-- [ Brah_S ]
The Exterminated & Subjugated Races : Blacks ('Dasyus' & 'Sudras'), Semites ('Panis') and Mongoloids ('Nagas')
This is an in-depth account of the races subjected or exterminated by the Aryan invaders.
Rakshasas are Dravidians
Aryan literature is replete with references to the hated Rakshasas. Rakshasa is a term of contempt for Dravidians and other black aboriginals. Some Aryan apologists have claimed that this term means 'demon' and does not refer to the aboriginals. This is entirely unfounded, however, because an overwhelming amount of evidence indicates that it is an abusive term applied to the native black populations of India (Dravidian, Kolarian, Kshudraka, etc.) :
- Rakshasas have black skin, broad nose, large mouth (ie. proganthism) and thick lips.
- In Ceylon, the term Rakshasa is applied in Cinghalese chronicles to the aboriginals. The vernacular applies Rakko or Yakko to them. This is confirmed by Chinese travellers [ Ann. 111 ].
- The kingdom of the Rakshasas was the southern part of India south of the Vindhya range as mentioned in the Ramayana. Ravaa's capital was Lanka on the island of Sri Lanka.
- As a consequnece of Rama's invasion, Lanka is now an Aryan-speaking country (but racially Dravidian). Moreover, the Indo-Aryan language Sinhalese is related to Eastern Indo-Aryan languages such as Oriya, a region whence part of Rama's army originated.
- Rahu is another famous Rakshasa. Another name of his is Melayaja, a term evidently derived from Malla, the name of a Dravidian tribe [ Opp.18 ], and whence Malbhum and Malayalam.
- Ravan is a title of distinction with the ancient rulers of Lanka [ Ban.50 ].
- Ravana is referred to as Rakshasendra [ Ann. 111 ].
Considering this, it is accepted by many that the Ram-Ravan conflict is between Aryan and Dravidians [ Ban.53 ].
The Asuras are also an aboriginal tribe, since a tribe of the same name is found in Jharkhand. However, many consider the Asuras to have been the Assyrians. Thus in Indian tradition people inhabiting the regions west of Iran are referred to as Asuras [ West.777.n17 ].
The Mongoloids are also mentioned by the Sanskrit poets. In Sanskrit they are referred to as Yakshas, in Pali as Yakkos & in Chinese as Yueh-Chih [ 1800,p.45 ]. These yellow races descended from the Himalayas and occupied much of the Ganges valley. Being natives of higher regions they considerd themselves to be superior to the inhabitants of the plains, and assumed the name of daivaputra of the sons of gods' [ 1800,p.45 ]. They spread over the whole of Bengal, and emigrated thence by sea to southern Indian and Ceylon.
The Gandharvas are the Gandharans :
- Gandharva and Gandhara are cognate terms.
- When Bharata destroyed the Gandharvas, he built the capital cities of Taxila and Pushkalavat [ Alld.920 ]. Taxila was the capital of Gandhara during historical times.
- The Ganharans are a hill tribe, which fits the mountain region of modern Afghanistan.
- The Gandharvans are described by Aryans as good-looking, which in Aryan eyes today, fits the people of the Gandhara region, ie. fair skin, black hair etc.
Considering this, it is accepted by most that the Gandharvas were a hill tribe, considered handsome by the people of the plains, but were later converted into divine mythical beings [ Mah.wh.228 ].
The Sudras (Sudrans) were considered a different race from the Aryas (Aryans):
" He lauded with one. Living beings were formed: Prajapati was ruler ... He lauded with nineteen: the Sudra and the Arya were created : day and night were the rulers."
-- [ Muir.I.18 ] [ Vajasaneya Samhita XIV.28 ff ] = [ Tait.Sam. IV.3.10.1 ]
"The Brahman caste is sprung from the gods; the Sudra from the Asuras"
Sans.: " Daivyo vai varno brahmanah
asuryyo sudrah "
-- [ Tait.Brah.I.2.6.7 ][ Muir.I.21 ]
" Let him at his will milk out with a golden dish. But let not a Sudra milk it out. For this Sudra has sprung from .
They say that that which a Shudra milks out is no oblation. Let not a Sudra milk out the Agnihotra. For they do not purify that. "
-- [ Tait.Brah.III.2.3.9 ] [ Muir I.21 ]
The Sudras were always vilified as a black race: After Prajapati (ie. Brahma) created the beings,
" The colour (Varna ) of the Brahmans was white, that of the Kshtriyas red, that of the Vaisyas yellow, and that of the Shudras black"
-- [ MBh.Santi.6930 ff ][ Muir.I.140 ]
" The Brahman is his mouth; he is the Kshattriya-armed, that great One, Vaisya-thighed, and has the black caste abiding in his feet." " Brahmananam kshattra-bhujo mahatma vid-urur anghrisrita-krishna-varnah"
-- [ Muir.I.156 ] [ Bhg.Pur.II.1.37 ]
"Others he [ Brahma ] created from his feet, whose chief characterisitic was drakness."
-- [ Muir 62 ] [ Vis.Pur. I.6.5 ]
" these 7 varshas have a system of four castes. The caste which dwell there are severally the Kapilas, Arunas, Pitas, and Krishnas (or, the Tawny, the Purple, the Yellow and the Black). These, the Brahmans, Kshattryias, the Vaisya an Sudras, worship woth excellent sacrifices Vishnu ... in the form of Vayu... "
-- [ Muir I.499 ] [ Vis.Pur.II.4.12 ]
The nagas are named as such perhaps because of their worship of the serpent - cf the serpent - god of Manipur conquered by the son of Arjuna [ Ram.wh 318 ] Indra killed the 'demon' Puloman to avoid the curse after having violated his daughter Shaci [ Opp.18 ]. 'Pulastya' is evidently linguistically related to 'Puloman'.
Indra is known as 'Balanashena or Balarati the enmey and destroyer of Bala. [ Opp.18 ]
Ravana is esteemed by the Jains [ Opp.524 ]
Krishna is referred to as Mallari, the enemy and destroyer of the Asura Malla.
Indra is referreed ot as Valadvish or Valanashana, destroyer of the demon Vala, the brother of Vrtra, and was also known as 'Balanashena or Balarati, the enemy and destroyer of the demon Bala. [ Opp.15 ]. That this was no demeon but an aboriginal is proven by the city Mahabalipuram, a city built by Bali.
Vishnu is referred to as Balidhvamsin, since he defeated the giant king Bali in the shape of the dwarf Vamana. [ Opp.15 ]
Rama cowardly murdered the mighty monkey-king Bali or Vali, brother of Sugriva by treachorously shooting him from behind a tree, while enticing them to both fight, and hence is proudly called 'Balihantr'. Bali is cognate to the terms Bhillas, Bhils, Bhallas, Vellallas, Pulindas and Pulanyar, Valhanar, Velamas. [ Opp.15 ]
Bhar [ Ptol.VII.2.20 ] is mentioned as an aboriginal race 'Barrhai'. Bar then led to Barbari is Sanskrit or Varvari. The Bhars inhabited Bundelkhand and were its former rulers. [ Opp.37 ]
The Buddhist term 'Vihara' led to the name 'Bihar' [ Opp.41, although he seems doubtful of this etymology ]
" Six colours of living beings are of principal importance, black, dusky, and blue which lies in betwen them; then the red is more tolerable, yellow is happiness, and white is extremem happiness. WHite is perfect, being exempted from stain, sorrow and exhaustion; (possessed) of it a being going through various births arrives at perfection in a thousand forms.
... Thus destination is caused by colour, and the colour is caused by time ...
The destination of the black colour is bad. When it has produced its results, it clings to hell."
-- [ Muir I.151 ] [ M.Bh.Sant.10058-60 ]
The Marathi word dalit, was chosen by the group itself and it means literally "ground," or "broken or reduced to pieces" [ Womn ].
Myths of Caste Origin based on Profession
Unfortunately some Vedist apologists refuse to believe that caste is racial in origin. We add some remarks below:
" Explain to me the means - whther it be intense austere-favour or ceremonies, or Vedic learning - whereby a Kshatriya, a Vaisya or a Shudra, if he so desire it, can attain to the state of Brahman. Bhishma replies ,
The state of a Brahman is hard to be acquired by men of the other three classes, the Kshattriyas etc., for this Brahmanhood is the highest rank among all living creatures. ' -- [ M.Bh.Anu.1869-70 ] [ Muir.I.441 ]
Matanga was the offspring of a Brahman woman, who when intoxicated, received the embraces of a low-born barber, and consequently he was no brahmin but a Candalla. He was however, brought up as a Brahman, but discovered it later. Whence he entered upon austerities, desiring Brahmanhood from the gods:
" He asks for Brahmanhood; but Indra tells him he must perish if he continues to make that request, as the high position he seeks cannot be obtained by one born as a Chandalla ."
-- [ MBh.Anu.1895 ] [ Muir.I.441 ]
After austerties of a thousand years, Indra stil refused to give him the boon and only gave him the abilility to fly like a bird, to change his shape at will and of beign honoured and renowned.
It is true that conversion from one caste to the other is allowed, but it has to be added that this takes several thousand rebirths. Thus, Indra explains to Matanga that :
- A Chandella can become a Sudra only after 1000 births.
- A Sudra can become a Vaisya only after 30 times that period
- A Vaisya can become a Rajanya after 60 times the previous length.
- A Rajanya can become a Brahman after 60 times the previous duration.
-- [ MBh.Anu.1901 ff ][ Muir.I.441 ]
Mahabharata Wars - Allies and Casualty Estimates
By the time of the Mahabharata conflict, the Aryans had settled around the region of modern Delhi. The Mahabharata War was a conflict between the pure Aryans and the non-Aryans and mixed races. The latter, represented by the Kauravas, supported a multi-racial society, while the former, the Pandavas, insisted on racial purity.
Racial Composition of the Armies
Ethnic Group Race
KAURAVA Allies Non-Aryans & Mixed-Races
Trigarttas [ Mah.raj 240ff ] Scythic Tyri Getae
Mlechchha [ Mah.raj 243 cf. their king Ang a ]
Black AboriginalsSindhu [ Mah.raj 251 ff, 256 ff ] Semites
PANDAVA Allies Pure Aryans
Panchala [ Mah.raj 106, 297 ] Aryans
Chedi [ Mah.raj 106 ] Aryans
Kekaya [ Mah.raj 106 ] Aryans
Vrishni [ Mah.raj 106 ] Aryans
Matsya [ Mah.raj 330 ] Aryans
Magadha [ Mah.raj 330 ] Non-Vedic Aryans
Bahlika [ Mah.raj 330 ]
Dasharna [ Mah.raj 330 ]
The Kauravas were of mixed race. Thus, Dhritarasthra's son-in-law was Jayadratha, king of the Sindhus [ Mah.raj 251 ]. Some of the Yadavas supported the Pandavas, others opposed [ Mah.raj 323 ]. The victory of the Aryans over the non-Aryans in this war enabled them to continue their migration southwards and eastwards.
The Pandavas raised 7 armies as opposed to the Kauravas' 11. On the 14th day of the battle Arjun annihilated 5 of the 11 armies ( 'akshoumin' ) amassed by the Kauravas. Attacking the Pandavas, Drona destroyed 1 army, Karna 2, and Bhishma 1. Yudhishitra told Dhritarasthra that the number of great warrriors slain numbered more than 94 crores (ie. 940 million). Some authorities estimate that 1.27 askhoumin = 1 billion (10^9), but this is an exaggeration. A more reasonable estimate is that most of the 18 armies total perished, 7 out of the 18 being the Aryan Pandava armies. Al-Beruni has estimated that the 18 akshouhinis add up to a total of 8,267,094 humans [ al-B.i.408 ]. Thus, the Kurukshetra Battle of the Mahabharat War alone accounted for 8.3 million casualties. Achaemenid and later Mauryan armies numbered several hundred thousand, and so a reasonable estimate of the number of combatants in one army is 100,000. The total number of casualties would then be 1.8 million. This is a reconciation between the billions of poets' fancies and the hundreds of certain historians, who wish to downplay this as the clash between rivel cow-herders. The latter view is untenable, witness the descriptions of battlefields.
The Ramayana is later than the Mahabharata, since:
- Location: Rama's capital is Ayodhya in Koshala, while Indra's is in Panchala
- Weapons are mentioned in the Ramayana that are not mentioned in the Mahabharata. Hence technology developed in the meantime.
During Hanuman's invasion of Lanka, which perceded that of Rama, he eradicated an army of Ravana. The total number of casualties was 80,000, seven Rakshasa generals, 5 commanders and Aksha. [ Ram.wh 340 ]
Archaeological Evidence for Vedic Aryan Invasions (1500 BC - 1000 BC)
Here is some of the archaeological evidence of Aryan invasions.
Thick Ash Layers
Thick ash layers occur in the upper strata of many Indus cities. At Nal the last phase of the Zhob-ware was burnt down so much so that the mound is known as the Sohr Damb, or the Red Mound, from the reddening due to fire. At Dabar Kot the upper 6 feet of the tell show 4 thick ash layers that indicate repeated destruction by conflagration and the RG V encrusted ware is associated with the last settlements of Harappa [ Pig.215 ].
At the Rana Ghundai mound everywhere overlying the foundation level of the RG III c phase there are pockets of ash. Above the RG III c phase the pottery is markedly different from the preceding type, the RG IV phase pottery being painted with coarse bands. RG IV was again destroyed by fire, and the RG V phase is marked by another change in pottery. The RG V pottery is unpainted and contains patterns in relief [ Pig.214 ].
At Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Chanhu-daro, skeletons/fragments of skeletons indicate violent massacres in the final stages of the cities' history. Huddled skeletons of persons murdered in the streets indicate that the mass dyings were not due to poisonings etc. but were violent.Also, Mallaja denotes Vellaja, black pepper. [ Opp.18 ]
-- [ Pig.145 ]
Buddha is described as being of the Sakya tribe, which has given rise to the theory that he was a Scythian [ Opp.20 ] However, the location of his home in Nepal, is itself indicative of a Mongol origin.
In Telugu 'Malavadu' = Pariah and the 2 terms are equivalent [ Opp.21 ] This is related to the term 'Malayalam' and Malabar, which are synonymous with 'outcaste'.
It is to be noted that Mallarasthra = kingdom of Malas or aboriginalas and Mallas; this later became Maharasthra and this is thus an alternative derivation of Maharashta, sometimes derived from 'Great Kingdom'. In Marathi Mallara is applied to Pariahs. [ Opp.21-22 ]