Class Lectures re Topic Three of CAS 130 Caribbean Studies Course Outline: Updated
By Dr. Kwame Nantambu
September 11, 2013
Updated: February 05, 2014
I. Powers of colonial governor: who exercises those powers today under neo-colonialism
During Euro-British colonialism, the governor had powers:
- To convene, prorogue, dissolve legislature: President on advice of PM has those powers re Parliament.
- To veto any law: PM
- To command militia: President is Commander of armed forces, etc.
- To appoint judges: Judicial and Legal Service Commission.
- To issue writs for the election of Representative Assemblies and Councils, etc.: EBC.
- To appoint, suspend, promote and dismiss public servants: PSC.
- To administer oath of Office to officials: President.
- To head Executive Council; PM, head of National Security Council.
Source: Professor Ann Marie Bissessar, "A Trip Down Our Historical Path", Sunday Guardian (4 September 2011), 39.
II. In 1888, Tobago was joined to Trinidad as a single Crown Colony.
III. Colonized in T&T was granted Adult Suffrage (right to vote) during 1946 general elections.
This represented limited Adult Suffrage because there were qualifications to vote; these were income (job), property, education (ability to read and write) and residence. Voting was limited only to men over age 21 and women over age 30.
Today, under neo-colonialism, universal/unlimited Adult Suffrage truly exists because a citizen only has to be age 18 to vote.
In addition, the colonized in United States were granted Adult Suffrage on 25 March, 1965, when President Lyndon Baines Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act. Prior to that, Washington D.C. was known as the "Last Colony." Today, Washington, D.C. is still not a State.
IV. Objectives of colonial education
- To produce people who would participate in the process of colonial rule: colonized taught to speak Euro-colonizer's language.
- To produce people who would participate in the process of oppression and exploitation of their own people (neo-colonialism): introduction of "Island Scholarship" program in 1920s--- concept #5.
- Education for sub-ordination, mental confusion and dependency; Bantu education in South Africa during heyday of Apartheid. Steve
Biko, a high school student, formed the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) to challenge the Euro-Dutch-Afrikaner Bantu education system. He was a victim of police brutality and died in a hospital in Pretoria on 16 June 1976.
- To enforce the "notion of privilege" and "notion of alienation."
V. Economic impact of Colonialism
- Enforced bilateralism—colony was forced to trade with European colonizer; today, the European re-colonizer is United States and trade is voluntary.
- Unfavorable terms of trade—colony exports/sells cheap primary products/raw materials but imports/buys expensive manufactured/secondary products.
- External law of uneven development—colony became underdeveloped—European colonizer became developed/industrialized. Dr. Walter Rodney "How Europe Underdeveloped Africa." Today, under neo-colonialism, internal Law of uneven development occurs to the extent that the urban areas become developed/industrialized as in tall buildings while the rural areas become underdeveloped.
- "Export bias"—no development took place in colony—raw materials only used for export purposes; single/one crop economy—colony only produced one crop, examples Cuba–sugar, Ghana–cocoa, Brazil–coffee, etc.
- Lack of infrastructural development, that is, roads, bridges, water, electricity, drains, etc — Central Trinidad.
VI. Euro-centric vs Afri-centric Analysis
HIS-STORY VS OUR STORY
- Deals with the effects/results of a problem/issue.
- Deals with the causes of a problem/issue
VII. Third World vs Pan Afrikan World
Third World consists of underdeveloped/developing countries of Asia, Afrika, Middle East, Latin America and Caribbean. Pan Afrikan World consists of countries in Asia, Afrika, Latin America, Caribbean in addition to 30 million plus African-Americans.
Shem Hotep ("I go in peace").
Dr. Kwame Nantambu is a part-time lecturer at Cipriani College of Labour and Co-operative Studies.
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